Musical Expression and the Challenge of Twentieth Century History By Leon Botstein Written for the concert Truth or Truffles, performed on Feb 10, 2013 at Carnegie Hall. 19th-century Europe witnessed unprecedented social and economic transformations. Among the most lasting (albeit erratic) of these was the expansion of literacy, most noticeable in Europe’s rapidly growing cities.…

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Karl Amadeus Hartmann, Gesangsszene By Byron Adams Written for the concert Truth or Truffles, performed on Feb 10, 2013 at Carnegie Hall. Karl Amadeus Hartmann is a shining example of the composer as a principled dissident. As Michael H. Kater has observed, “we must continue to accept the hitherto reported version that Hartmann was opposed…

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Richard Strauss, Schlagobers By Byron Adams Written for the concert Truth or Truffles, performed on Feb 10, 2013 at Carnegie Hall. To say that Karl Kraus, the radical Viennese essayist and founder of the satirical journal Die Fackel, disliked Richard Strauss’ ballet Schlagobers, op. 70 (“Whipped Cream”) would be an understatement: “But now even his…

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